Ocular Microbiology and Immunology

Many of the viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi that can invade the human body are also capable of attacking the surface or interior of the eye. The natural tendency for immunologic disease to affect the eye derives from a number of factors such as Antibody-dependent & antibody-mediated diseases, Uveitis, intraocular inflammation and cell-mediated diseases. The immune system plays a critical role during transplantation and as the corneal transplantation has become increasingly common since the 1960s and over 40,000 transplants were performed in 1990 in the United States and Canada. The 5-year failure rate for corneal grafts is approximately 35%; corneal graft rejection is the most common cause of graft failure in the late postoperative period but with the recent development in immunotherapy can be a breakthrough to overcome from all the limitations of the conventional procedures. The microbiological infection such as fungal endophthalmitis can affect the vitreous and anterior chamber of the eye and hence the uses of antibiotic in ocular infections have been increased to overcome these conditions. The consumables, equipment and technology markets in the microbiology industry totaled nearly $7.7 billion in 2012. This total is expected to grow from $8.5 billion in 2013 to $11.4 billion in 2018, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6.1% for the five-year period, 2013 to 2018.

  • Antibody-dependent & antibody-mediated diseases
  • Cell-mediated diseases
  • Corneal graft reactions
  • Fungal endophthalmitis
  • Antibiotics in ocular infections
  • Uveitis, intraocular inflammation
  • Recent developments in immunotherapy

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